Let’s put a smile on that scale: Findings from three web survey experiments

Graphical symbols such as smileys and other emoticons are prevalent in everyday life. Paralleling their increasing use in private text messaging and even in business communication, smileys and other emoticons also have been used more frequently in surveys.

Introduction

Smileys and other emoticons as graphic representations of facial expressions are prevalent in everyday life. These visualizations are used frequently in private text messages, chats, and even business emails (e.g., Derks, Bos, & von Grumbkow, 200

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