Evaluating the advertising effectiveness of noncelebrity endorsers: Advantages of customer vs. employee endorsers and mediating factors of their impact

Research on advertising endorsements offers only limited knowledge about noncelebrity endorsements. Different types of noncelebrity endorsers (i.e., customer versus employee), however, could have distinct influences on advertising effectiveness, which is of great managerial interest in optimizing endorser usage.
Grve, Schnittka, and Haiduk


  • The advertising effectiveness of noncelebrity endorsements depends on the risks associated with the product category advertised.
  • In product categories associated with high levels of social risk, customer endorsements result in higher advertising effectiveness relative to no endorsement.