Can your advertisement go abstract without affecting willingness to pay? Product-centered versus lifestyle content in luxury brand print advertisements

Advertising can focus on concrete product attributes or on lifestyle expressions and abstract benefits.
Massara, Scarpi, and Parcheddu


  • Advertising language (abstract versus concrete) and advertising content (product-based versus lifestyle-building) do not directly affect willingness to pay.
  • Construal levels (how consumers interpret objects and brands) can be influenced in practice through a simple manipulation of the adjective-to-noun ratio in advertising text.

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