Comparing respondents who passed versus failed an Instructional Manipulation Check: A case study about support for climate change policies

The presence of satisficers among survey respondents threatens survey data quality. To identify such respondents, Oppenheimer et al.


Krosnick's (1991) theory of satisficing stated that respondents, to reduce the cognitive efforts required to answer surveys, use shortcuts such as skimming the instructions and questions, or choosing the first acceptable answer. These behaviors might

WARC subscribers can sign in to keep reading

Not a subscriber?

WARC helps you to plan, create and deliver more effective marketing

  • Prove your case and back-up your idea

  • Get expert guidance on strategic challenges

  • Tackle current and emerging marketing themes

WARC consistently delivers valuable insights that help to make me look like an expert in front of my colleagues and clients.

Dasha Boryso
Strategy Partner, Fetch

You’re in good company

We work with 80% of Forbes' most valuable brands* and 80% of the world's top top-of-the-class agencies.

* Top 10 brands